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Cardiac Surgery

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What is Cardiac Surgery?

Cardiac Surgery, commonly known as heart surgery, consists of various surgeries on the heart and other parts of the cardiovascular system. It is performed by Cardiac surgeons. 

Heart surgeries are comparatively more complicated and intricate than surgeries on other organs. It involves cutting the chest open and then performing surgery on the heart or arteries. However, since it is performed by highly trained professionals, it is a very safe procedure.

Types of Heart

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What is Cardiac Surgery?

Cardiac Surgery, commonly known as heart surgery, consists of various surgeries on the heart and other parts of the cardiovascular system. It is performed by Cardiac surgeons. 

Heart surgeries are comparatively more complicated and intricate than surgeries on other organs. It involves cutting the chest open and then performing surgery on the heart or arteries. However, since it is performed by highly trained professionals, it is a very safe procedure.

Types of Heart Surgeries:

  • Heart Valve Repair/Replacement: Valves in the heart can get partially or fully damaged due to age, diabetes etc. To repair this, surgery is needed. The damaged valve is replaced either by an artificial valve, or a biological one extracted from animals like cows and pigs.

  • Aneurysm Repair: Weak walls or sections of the heart or artery are replaced with patches through surgery. This treats a bulged artery or wall in the heart’s muscle.

  • Heart Transplant: One of the riskiest procedures in surgical medicine, a heart transplant is done to treat diseases like heart failure, coronary heart disease, congenital heart disorders, major heart attacks etc. 
    In this procedure, the damaged heart is removed from the patient’s body and is replaced and set up with a functional heart. The functional heart can only be obtained from a freshly deceased person’s body.

  • Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG): This is the most common heart surgery, also known as Bypass Surgery. When one or more arteries in the body are blocked, blood cannot pass through and is unable to reach beyond these arteries. Through CABG, healthy arteries are replaced with blocked ones to restart the supply and normal flow of blood by creating new paths. 

  • Pacemaker Insertion: A pacemaker is a medical device that is implanted in the chest to control the frequency of heartbeats. Pacemaker insertion is done only in severe cases of irregular heartbeats. Heartbeats are either too slow or too frequent in this case. In this surgery, the heart is not cut open. 

Common Diseases That Require Heart Surgery:  

Some of the most common diseases that require heart surgery are:

  • Congenital Heart Defects (since birth)
  • Heart Valve Disease
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • Heart Failure

Types of Cardiac Surgery:

Heart Surgery Techniques

  • Aortic valve operation. An aortic valve that is not functioning properly may require surgery to repair or replace.
  • Surgery for arrhythmia.
  • Operation in a congenital heart.
  • Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG).
  • Organ transplant.

How to prepare?

After midnight the night before your procedure, no solid food is allowed. The amount of clear liquids you consume is up to you, unless otherwise directed. Additionally, there is a specific technique that you must clean yourself. Use your usual shampoo and conditioner in the shower or bathtub.

What to expect?

 

 

You'll be given medication before the procedure to thin your blood and prevent blood clots, and throughout the procedure. An apparatus for heart-lung bypass surgery will be attached to your heart by your surgeon. Blood will be pumped away from your heart by the machine, which will take over your heart's pumping job.

Conclusion:

By restoring blood flow to the heart by opening - or replacing - blocked coronary arteries, cardiac surgery can assist to sustain and prolong life. A defective heart valve can be stretched, fixed, or replaced. controlling or regulating an irregular heartbeat.

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